Ruth Colvin Clark promotes these principles in her book: Building Expertise.
Guidelines for Introducing Lessons
1. Make relevance obvious: Make the usefullness and benefits of new knowledge and skills obvious from the start.
2. Activate relevant prior knowledge: Use advance organizers, pre-questions, and previews to help bring relevant knowledge into the student's working memory.
3. Present learning objectives: Provide a clear statement of expected outcomes from a lesson.
Guidelines for Presenting Content
1. Optimize mental capacity: Control the physical environment, minimize fatigue, and promote accountability for learning.
2. Use pre-training to organize content: Teach relevant general concepts prior to teaching process stages or task steps.
3. Minimize note-taking: Provide learners with notes because note-taking diverts attention and wastes valuable learning time.
4. Build situational interest: Write and speak with well organized, concrete, but conversational language that engages learners.
5. Signal attention: Call out the most important and relevant aspects of a lesson.
6. Include worked examples: Provide demonstrations to illustrate task performance.
7. Include analogies: Model features or functions of new content with illustrations of content from a different domain.